Common Medications in Children

Most 6 Common Medications In Children

Pediatric pharmacology is the science that studies the effects and doses of drugs in children, it must take into account a large number of specific factors of this population group so heterogeneous.

The administration of medicines in childhood is a difficult challenge,since a set of particular characteristics of this group of the population must be taken into account.

Pediatric pharmacology

Pediatric pharmacology is the science that studies the administration of medicines to children , covering aspects such as the dose of administration, the possible side effects, the mechanism of action of the drug or its form of administration.

In pediatric pharmacology, the metabolic and physiological characteristics of children should be taken into account , as well as the great variability existing between one patient and another.

The pediatric population is very heterogeneous in terms of age, weight, surface area and the capacity to absorb, metabolize and excrete drugs.

In general, it could be said that the most relevant feature that pediatric pharmacology should take into account is the degree of immaturity of the patients, since the organs of children have a higher degree of immaturity and, ultimately, a different functioning than those of children. of adults.

These differences in the functioning of the organism in children will condition the behavior of the drugs administered, making the choice of dose a complicated task

Physiological peculiarities in children

Physiology of babies.

Some of the characteristics of pediatric patients are, for example, their immature biliary functioning, which can cause deficits in the circulation and in the hepatic metabolism of some drugs.

The newborn has a greater amount of water in the body compared to an adult, and the permeability of their cell membranes is also greater. These aspects make the biotransformation of drugs lower in newborns and, therefore, the duration of action of certain drugs is prolonged.

On the other hand, kidney function in children is also diminished. This makes plasma life (time in which we can find the drug in blood) is increased, because the renal excretion of the drug is slowed down.

In addition, these particularities are not only found in the process of metabolizing the drug, but also in the action that the drug itself exerts on the body. In relation to this last aspect, we can observe different sensitivities to different drugs , being increased or decreased with respect to the adult patient depending on the medicine in question.

In short, the pediatric population is a very peculiar group, which requires a specific study when deciding the medication to be used, as well as a specific adjustment of the doses, which are usually smaller than those that would correspond to their weight, due to decreased renal and hepatic function in the newborn.

It is especially important to avoid self-medication in this type of patients, so that, in case of any doubt, they should go and ask for advice from the health personnel, who will decide the best treatment for the child.

Most common medications in children

The drugs most used in the pediatric population are intended to alleviate minor conditions or common symptoms such as discomfort, pain or fever.

Analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

It is the most commonly used pain medication.

Paracetamol

  • It is a medicine with little anti-inflammatory action, but antipyretic (reduces fever)
  • It can be administered by various routes such as oral, rectal or intravenous
  • Does not cause intestinal damage
  • At high doses can cause liver damage (is hepatotoxic)
Medicines for children.

Nolotil (metamizole)

  • Analgesic more powerful than paracetamol
  • It is a medicine with little anti-inflammatory, but antipyretic (reduces fever)
  • It relaxes the muscles of the intestine, so it is widely used in colic-type pains
  • It can be administered orally, rectally and parenterally
  • Does not cause intestinal damage
  • It can cause hypotension
  • Its administration is not advised in babies under 4 months

Ibuprofen

  • It is the most used NSAID in children
  • It is anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (reduces fever)
  • Very well tolerated at the gastrointestinal level
  • It is administered orally
  • Its administration is not recommended for babies under 3 months

Naproxen

  • It is administered orally or rectally
  • In Spain, its use is only approved for people over 16 years of age
  • Used in rheumatic diseases and for menstrual pain
Naproxen medication

Diclofenac

  • Used in pictures of intense pain
  • Antipyretic
  • It relaxes the muscles of the intestine, so it is widely used in colic-type pains
  • In Spain, approved only in people over 14 years

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)

  • Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory
  • Not authorized in children under 16
  • Related to Reye’s syndrome , a serious illness that can occur in children when taking aspirin to treat the symptoms of a viral illness such as the flu or chickenpox.

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